BSP Estimation Methods
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BSP Estimation Methods
Selection Criteria
Mass & MOI Correction
References & Related Literature

BSP Estimation Methods

The BSP estimation methods presented here were originally compiled by Kwon (1993). Three groups of BSP estimation methods are included in this page: the cadaver-based (group C), the mass-scanning based (group M) & the geometric models (group G):

Cadaver-Based
Ratio Method
Simple Regression Method
Stepwise Regression Method
Scaling Method
Mass Scanning-Based
Ratio Method
Simple Regression Method
Prediction Equation Method
Scaling Method
Geometric Models
Modified Hanavan (Hanavan-Kwon)
Modified Yeadon (Yeadon-Kwon)

Group C is based on the work done by Chandler et al. (1975). Group M is based on the work reported by Zatsiorsky and associates (Zatsiorsky & Seluyanov, 1983 & 1985; Zatsiorsky, Seluyanov & Chugunova, 1990). The geometric models are based on Hanavan (1964) & Yeadon (1990). The original data and/or method reported were slightly modified due to several reasons. See each method page for the details of the modification.

Three general geometric shapes were used in group G to define the body segments: semi-ellipsoid, elliptical solid and stadium solid. See BSP Equations for the details of the BSP equations of these general geometric shapes, such as the volume, CM location, and the volume moments of inertia.

All methods listed above require a set of anthropometric parameters. See Anthropometric Measurement for the details.

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Selection Criteria

The method-selection criteria are: (a) all three principal moments of inertia for each segment should be provided, (b) the BSPs of the sub-trunk segments should be provided, and (c) the BSP estimation process should be relatively simple. The work done by Chandler et al. and Zatsiorsky et al., and the geometric methods were first selected based on the first criterion. Among the geometric methods, the elliptical zone method (Jensen, 1978) and the Hatze model (Hatze, 1980) were dropped based on the third criterion since these methods require either complex data collection and additional equipment, or extensive anthropometric measurement.

In all methods except the modified Yeadon model, the trunk was sectioned at the xyphion and omphalion levels into 3 segments: upper (thorax including neck), middle (abdomen) and lower (pelvis). The CM locations and radius-of-gyration ratios were expressed in % of the hip-to-omphalion height, omphalion-to-xyphion height and the xyphion-to-shoulder height in the lower, middle and upper trunks, respectively. The BSPs of the upper and middle trunks were combined to obtain those of the thorax-abdomen. The modified Yeadon model directly generates the BSPs of the thorax-abdomen.

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Mass & MOI Correction

Due to the errors involved in mass estimation, the masses and moments of inertia of the segments must be corrected based on the measured whole body mass:

Estimation of the whole body mass based on the estimated segment masses:

mthd_e01.gif (370 bytes)    [1]

Calculation of the density factor from the measured and the estimated whole-body masses:

mthd_e02.gif (238 bytes)    [2]

Correction of the masses and the principal moments of inertia of the segments:

mthd_e03.gif (1077 bytes)    [3]

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References & Related Literature

Ackland, T.R., Henson, P.W. and Bailey, D.A. (1988). The uniform density assumption: its effect upon the estimation of body segment inertial parameters. Int. J. Sports Biomechanics 4, 146-155.

Barter, J. T. (1957). Estimation of the mass of body segments. WADC-TR-57-260. Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio.

Chandler, R. F., Clauser, C. E., McConville, J. T., Reynolds, H. M. and Young, J. W. (1975). Investigation of inertial properties of the human body. AMRL-TR-74-137, AD-A016-485. DOT-HS-801-430. Aerospace Medical Research Laboratories, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio.

Clauser, C. E., McConville, J. T. and Young, J. W. (1969). Weight, volume and center of mass of segments of the human body. AMRL-TR-69-70. Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio.

Dapena, J. (1978). A method to determine the angular momentum of a human body about three orthogonal axes passing through its center of gravity. J. Biomechanics 11, 251-256.

Dempster, W. T. (1955). Space requirements of the seated operator. WADC-55-159, AD-087-892. Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio.

Forwood, M. R., Neal, R. J. and Wilson, B. D. (1985). Scaling segmental moments of inertia for individual subjects. J. Biomechanics 18, 755-761.

Hanavan, E. P. (1964). A mathematical model of the human body. AMRL-TR-64-102, AD-608-463. Aerospace Medical Research Laboratories, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio.

Hatze, H. (1980) A mathematical model for the computational determination of parameter values of anthropometric segments. J. Biomechanics 13, 833-843.

Hinrichs, R.N. (1990). Adjustments to the segment center of mass proportions of Clauser et al. (1969). J. Biomechanics 23, 949-951.

Hinrichs, R.N. (1985). Regression equations to predict segmental moments of inertia from anthropometric measurements: An extension of the data of Chandler et al. (1975). J. Biomechanics 18, 621-624.

Huston, R. L., and Passerello, C. E. (1971). On dynamics of a human body model. J. Biomech. 4, 369-378.

Jensen, R. K. (1978). Estimation of the biomechanical properties of three body types using a photogrammetric method. J. Biomechanics 11, 349-358.

Kwon, Y.-H. (1996). Effects of the method of body segment parameter estimation on airborne angular momentum. Journal of Applied Biomechanics 12, 413-430.

Kwon, Y.-H. (1993). The effects of body segment parameter estimation on the experimental simulation of a complex airborne movement. Doctoral Dissertation, Pennsylvania State University.

Miller, D. I. and Morrison, W. (1975). Prediction of segmental parameters using the Hanavan human body model. Med. Sci. Sports 7, 207-212.

Mungiole, M. and Martin, P.E. (1990). Estimating segmental inertia properties: comparison of magnetic resonance imaging with existing methods. J. Biomechanics 23, 1039-1046.

Plagenhoef, S., Evans, F. G. and Abdelnour, T. (1983). Anatomical data for analyzing human motion. Res. Q. Exercise Sport 54, 169-178.

Rodrique, D. and Gagnon, M. (1983). The evaluation of forearm density with axial tomography. J. Biomechanics 16, 907-913.

Yeadon, M. R. (1990). The simulation of aerial movement-II. A mathematical inertia model of the human body. J. Biomechanics 23, 67-74.

Zatsiorsky, V. M. and Seluyanov, V. N. (1983). The mass and inertia characteristics of the main segments of the human body. Biomechanics VIII-B (Edited by Matsui, H. and Kobayashi, K.), pp. 1152-1159. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Zatsiorsky, V. M. and Seluyanov, V. N. (1985). Estimation of the mass and inertia characteristics of the human body by means of the best predictive regression equations. Biomechanics IX-B (Edited by Winter, D. A., Norman, R. W., Wells, R. P., Hayes, K. C. and Patla, A. E.), pp. 233-239. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Zatsiorsky, V. M., Seluyanov, V. N. and Chugunova, L. (1990). In vivo body segment inertial parameters determination using a gamma-scanner method. Biomechanics of human movement: Applications in rehabilitation, sports and ergonomics (Edited by Berme, N. and Cappozzo, A.), pp. 187-202. Worthington, OH: Bertec Corporation.

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Young-Hoo Kwon, 1998-