Modified Hanavan Model
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Mass Computation
References & Related Literature


The geometric human body model designed by Hanavan (1964) was modified as follows:

The segment masses were estimated based on the regression equations of Clauser et al. (1969) instead of those of Barter (1957). This was originally tried by Miller & Morrison (1975).
The trunk was divided into three segments at the omphalion (navel) and xyphion level: upper (elliptical column), middle (elliptical solid) and lower (elliptical column).
The hand was defined as an ellipsoid of revolution.
The foot was defined as an elliptical solid with the base (proximal end) being circular.
The thigh was defined as an elliptical solid with the top (distal end) being circular.

A total of 41 anthropometric parameters need to be measured in this model (Table 1).

TABLE 1. Anthropometric Parameters Used in the Modified Hanavan Model

No Parameter No Parameter
1 Length, Hand 21 Circumference, Toe
2 Length, Wrist to Knuckle 22 Circumference, Ankle
3 Length, Forearm 23 Circumference, Shank
4 Length, Upperarm 24 Circumference, Knee
5 Length, Elbow to Acromion 25 Circumference, Upper Thigh
6 Length, Foot 26 Circumference, Head
7 Length, Shank 27 Circumference, Chest
8 Length, Thigh 28 Circumference, Xyphion Level
9 Length, Head 29 Circumference, Omphalion Level
10 Length, Upper Trunk 30 Circumference, Buttock
11 Length, Xyphion to Acromion Level 31 Width, Hand
12 Length, Middle Trunk 32 Width, Wrist
13 Length, Lower Trunk 33 Width, Foot
14 Circumference, Fist 34 Width, Toe
15 Circumference, Wrist 35 Depth, Hip
16 Circumference, Forearm 36 Width, Chest
17 Circumference, Elbow 37 Width, Xyphion Level
18 Circumference, Axillary Arm 38 Width, Omphalion Level
19 Circumference, Foot 39 Width, Coxae
20 Circumference, Ball of Foot 40 Length, Xyphion Level to Chin/Neck Intersection
41 Length, Hip to Chin/Neck Intersection = P12 + P13 + P40


Mass Computation

The masses of the segments were obtained from the prediction equations of Clauser et al. (1969) while the densities of the segments were calculated from the masses and the volumes of the segments in this method. Each segment was defined as a simple geometric shape and the density throughout the segment was assumed to be constant.

TABLE 2. Mass Prediction Equations (Adapted from Clauser et al, 1969)

Segment Prediction Equation
Hand m = 0.038*P15 + 0.080*P32 - 0.660
Forearm m = 0.081*M + 0.052*P16 - 1.650
Upperarm m = 0.007*M + 0.092*P18 + 0.050*P5 -3.101
Foot m = 0.003*M + 0.048*P22 + 0.027*P6 - 0.869
Shank m = 0.135*P23 - 1.318
Thigh m = 0.074*M + 0.138*P25 - 4.641
Head m = 0.104*P26 + 0.015*M - 2.189
Trunk m = 0.349*M + 0.423*P41 + 0.229*P27 - 35.460

M = whole-body mass    Pi = anthropometric parameter shown in Table 1



As shown in Figure 1, the hand and head were defined as ellipsoids of revolution while other body segments were defined as variations of elliptical solid such as truncated circular cones (forearm, upperarm and shank), elliptical columns (upper trunk and lower trunk), elliptical solid (middle trunk), or elliptical solids with one face being circular (foot and thigh). See Table 2 for the details.

   Figure 1


TABLE 3. Geometric Shapes and Arguments of the BSP Functions

Segment Geometric Shape Group Arguments of the BSP Functions
Hand ER SE HAN_T01.GIF (384 bytes)
Forearm TCC ES han_t02.gif (618 bytes)
Upperarm TCC ES han_t03.gif (618 bytes)
Foot ES with
Circular Base
ES han_t04.gif (993 bytes)
Shank TCC ES han_t05.gif (618 bytes)
Thigh ES with
Circular Top
ES han_t06.gif (817 bytes)
Head ER SE han_t07.gif (387 bytes)
U Trunk EC ES han_t08.gif (819 bytes)
M Trunk ES ES han_t09.gif (920 bytes)
L Trunk EC ES han_t10.gif (871 bytes)

EC = Elliptical Column, ER = Ellipsoid of Revolution, ES = Elliptical Solid,
SE = Semi-Ellipsoid, TCC = Truncated Circular Cone
Pi = anthropometric parameter shown in Table 1
a, ao, a1, b, bo, b1, c & L = symbols used in the BSP equations

The whole trunk mass is calculated from the prediction equation while those of the individual segments are calculated based on the volumes and the density factors (0.92 for the upper trunk and 1.01 for both middle and lower trunks) of the trunk segments:

han_f01.gif (1334 bytes)    [1]

where UT, MT & LT = upper, middle & lower trunk, respectively, m = mass, V = volume, and sf = scaling factor. The BSP estimation procedures are as follows:

Computation of the segment masses using the prediction equations in Table 2
Computation of the segment volumes and CMs using the BSP functions (Table 3)
Computation of the masses of the trunk segments using [1]


References and Related Literature

Barter, J. T. (1957). Estimation of the mass of body segments. WADC-TR-57-260. Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio.

Hanavan, E. P. (1964). A mathematical model of the human body. AMRL-TR-64-102, AD-608-463. Aerospace Medical Research Laboratories, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio.

Miller, D. I. and Morrison, W. (1975). Prediction of segmental parameters using the Hanavan human body model. Med. Sci. Sports 7, 207-212.


Young-Hoo Kwon, 1998-