Overview
The geometric human
body model designed by Hanavan (1964) was modified as follows:
 The segment masses were estimated based on the
regression equations of Clauser et al. (1969) instead of those of
Barter (1957). This was
originally tried by Miller & Morrison (1975). 
 The trunk was divided into three segments at the
omphalion (navel) and xyphion level: upper
(elliptical column), middle (elliptical solid) and lower (elliptical column). 
 The hand was defined as an ellipsoid of
revolution. 
 The foot was defined as an elliptical solid with
the base (proximal end) being circular. 
 The thigh was defined as an elliptical solid with
the top (distal end) being circular. 
A total of 41 anthropometric parameters need to be measured in this model (Table 1).
TABLE 1. Anthropometric Parameters Used in the
Modified Hanavan Model
No 
Parameter 
No 
Parameter 
1 
Length, Hand 
21 
Circumference, Toe 
2 
Length, Wrist to Knuckle 
22 
Circumference, Ankle 
3 
Length, Forearm 
23 
Circumference, Shank 
4 
Length, Upperarm 
24 
Circumference, Knee 
5 
Length, Elbow to Acromion 
25 
Circumference, Upper Thigh 
6 
Length, Foot 
26 
Circumference, Head 
7 
Length, Shank 
27 
Circumference, Chest 
8 
Length, Thigh 
28 
Circumference, Xyphion Level 
9 
Length, Head 
29 
Circumference, Omphalion Level 
10 
Length, Upper Trunk 
30 
Circumference, Buttock 
11 
Length, Xyphion to Acromion Level 
31 
Width, Hand 
12 
Length, Middle Trunk 
32 
Width, Wrist 
13 
Length, Lower Trunk 
33 
Width, Foot 
14 
Circumference, Fist 
34 
Width, Toe 
15 
Circumference, Wrist 
35 
Depth, Hip 
16 
Circumference, Forearm 
36 
Width, Chest 
17 
Circumference, Elbow 
37 
Width, Xyphion Level 
18 
Circumference, Axillary Arm 
38 
Width, Omphalion Level 
19 
Circumference, Foot 
39 
Width, Coxae 
20 
Circumference, Ball of Foot 
40 
Length, Xyphion Level to Chin/Neck Intersection 
41 
Length, Hip to Chin/Neck Intersection = P_{12}
+ P_{13} + P_{40} 
Top
Mass Computation
The masses of the segments were obtained from the
prediction equations of Clauser et al. (1969) while the densities of the segments were
calculated from the masses and the volumes of the segments in this method. Each segment was defined as a simple geometric shape and
the density throughout the segment was assumed to be constant.
TABLE 2. Mass Prediction Equations
(Adapted from Clauser et al, 1969)
Segment 
Prediction Equation 
Hand 
m = 0.038*P_{15} + 0.080*P_{32}
 0.660 
Forearm 
m = 0.081*M + 0.052*P_{16} 
1.650 
Upperarm 
m = 0.007*M + 0.092*P_{18} +
0.050*P_{5} 3.101 
Foot 
m = 0.003*M + 0.048*P_{22} +
0.027*P_{6}  0.869 
Shank 
m = 0.135*P_{23}  1.318 
Thigh 
m = 0.074*M + 0.138*P_{25} 
4.641 
Head 
m = 0.104*P_{26} + 0.015*M 
2.189 
Trunk 
m = 0.349*M + 0.423*P_{41} +
0.229*P_{27}  35.460 
M = wholebody mass P_{i}
= anthropometric parameter shown in Table 1
Top
Modeling
As shown in Figure 1,
the hand and head were defined as ellipsoids of revolution while other body segments were
defined as variations of elliptical solid such as truncated circular cones (forearm,
upperarm and shank), elliptical columns (upper trunk and lower trunk), elliptical solid
(middle trunk), or elliptical solids with one face being circular (foot and thigh). See
Table 2 for the details.
Figure 1
TABLE 3. Geometric
Shapes and Arguments of the BSP Functions
Segment 
Geometric Shape 
Group 
Arguments of the BSP Functions 
Hand 
ER 
SE 

Forearm 
TCC 
ES 

Upperarm 
TCC 
ES 

Foot 
ES with
Circular Base 
ES 

Shank 
TCC 
ES 

Thigh 
ES with
Circular Top 
ES 

Head 
ER 
SE 

U Trunk 
EC 
ES 

M Trunk 
ES 
ES 

L Trunk 
EC 
ES 

EC = Elliptical Column, ER =
Ellipsoid of Revolution, ES = Elliptical Solid,
SE = SemiEllipsoid, TCC = Truncated Circular Cone
P_{i} = anthropometric parameter shown in Table 1
a, a_{o}, a_{1}, b, b_{o},
b_{1}, c & L = symbols used in the BSP equations
The whole trunk mass is calculated from the
prediction equation while those of the individual segments are calculated based on the
volumes and the density factors (0.92 for the upper trunk and 1.01 for both middle and
lower trunks) of the trunk segments:
[1]
where UT, MT & LT
= upper, middle & lower trunk, respectively, m = mass, V = volume,
and sf = scaling factor. The BSP estimation procedures are as follows:
 Computation of the segment masses using the
prediction equations in Table 2 
 Computation of the segment volumes and CMs using
the BSP functions (Table 3) 
 Computation of the masses of the trunk segments
using [1] 
Top
References and Related Literature
Barter, J. T. (1957). Estimation of the mass of body segments.
WADCTR57260. WrightPatterson Air Force Base, Ohio.
Hanavan, E. P. (1964). A mathematical model of the human body.
AMRLTR64102, AD608463. Aerospace Medical Research Laboratories, WrightPatterson Air
Force Base, Ohio.
Miller, D. I. and Morrison, W. (1975).
Prediction of segmental parameters using the Hanavan human body model. Med. Sci. Sports 7, 207212.
